Τρίτη, 1 Ιανουαρίου 2013

Ἰξὸς , mistletoe, Viscum album









Βίσκο το λευκό, Βρύ, ἐλατένιο, μελιός, μέλα, ἰξιός, Ἰξία τοῦ Θεοφράστου


Le gui.---- aussi Bois de Sainte Croix, Glu, Verquet, Blondeau, Gu, Vert de Pommier, Bouchon.Son nom est issu du latin viscum, devenu *WISCU en gallo-roman sous l'influence du francique *wîhsila, sorte de griotte, puis gwy et guy. L'ancien occitan quant à lui, a conservé le mot vesc issu directement du latin Viscum signifie colleglu ( visqueux) en référence à la viscosité de ses fruits. Album (alba, blanc) fait référence à la couleur blanchâtre des fruits.


Weißbeerige Mistel ---- Viscum album Volksnamen: Hexennest, Donnerbesen, Laubholzmistel, Drudenfuß, Bocksbutter, Albranken, Wintergrün

Allseits bekannt aus den "Asterix"-Comics, wo sie vom Druiden Miraculix mit einer goldenen Sichel geschnitten wird: die Mistel. In der Tat war die Mistel den Druiden (Gelehrte, Heilkundige und Priester) die heiligste Pflanze überhaupt. Sie war das Zeichen dafür, das die Götter selbst ihnen gaben, um zu zeigen, dass sie selbst in dem Baum, auf welchem die Mistel wuchs, anwesend seien. Sie durfte nur mit einer goldenen Sichel oder Hippe während einer feierlichen Zeremonie geschnitten werden. Danach wurde sie zum Beispiel zum Schutz über den Haustüren angebracht oder als Amulett getragen.
Die auf Laubbäumen nistende Mistel ist ein Halbschmarotzer. Sie entzieht zwar dem Baum Wasser und Nährsalze, indem sie mit ihren Wurzeln die Nährstoffversorgung im Holz anzapft, verarbeitet diese jedoch selbst in ihren ledrigen, grün-gelblichen, immergrünen Blättern. Sie trägt weiße, klebrige Scheinbeeren, deren Samen im Kot von Vögeln oder an deren Schnabel weitergetragen wird.

In den Wintermonaten sieht man am deutlichsten, wo die Mistel nistet, als grüner Ball hängt sie in den Zweigen von verschiedenen Laubbaumarten. Die Laubholzmistel blüht zwei Mal im Jahr, einmal von März bis April und dann von Anfang Oktober bis Mitte Dezember. Gesammelt wird sie nur im März und April und Oktober. Sie wird mit Stangen aus den Ästen geschlagen oder mit einer Schere (oder wer mag auch mit einer goldenen Sichel) herausgeschnitten. Das Sammelgut wird zum Trocknen auf einer Leine aufgereiht. Getrocknet riecht die Mistel leicht Ranzig. Angeblich sollen Misteln, die auf Eichen gewachsen sind, am mächtigsten sein, jedoch auch am seltensten.

Die Früchte der Mistel sind giftig, doch als Salbe verwendet oder als Brei aufgelegt, heilen sie Erfrierungen. Die Mistelblätter beeinflussen den gesamten Drüsenhaushalt des Körpers positiv und machen sich damit zu einem vorzüglichen stoffwechselfördernden Mittel. Bei Zuckerkrankheit und chronischen Stoffwechselerkrankungen kann sie so wahre Wunder bewirken. Auch Arterienverkalkung und Schlaganfall können bei regelmäßigem Gebrauch vermieden werden. Sollte es schon zu einem Schlaganfall gekommen sein, trinkt man täglich sechs Wochen lang drei Tassen Misteltee und zwar die erste Tasse vor und nach dem Frühstück, die zweite Tasse vor und nach dem Mittagessen und die dritte Tasse vor und nach dem Abendbrot immer jeweils zur Hälfte. Auch zur Stillung von Blutungen; getrunken gegen Lungen- und Darmblutungen oder in die Nase hochgezogen gegen Nasenbluten wird sie verwendet. Auch bei Kreislauf- und Menstruationsstörungen, Unannehmlichkeiten der Wechseljahre hilft die Mistel, ja sogar gegen Unfruchtbarkeit bei Frauen (als frischer Presssaft genommen) und gar Krebs soll sie helfen. Schon im Altertum wurde sie vor allem auch gegen Krämpfe, Epilepsie und Hysterie angewandt.

Der Misteltee wird kalt angesetzt, dafür zwei bis vier Teelöffel Mistel in einem Viertelliter Wasser kalt ansetzen und zehn bis zwölf Stunden ziehen lassen. Davon trinke man leicht aufgewärmt auf nüchternen Magen morgens die erste Tasse, die zweite abends. Die Anwendungsdauer sollte mehrere Wochen oder auch Monate betragen.
Frischen Saft gewinnt man aus frischen, gut gewaschenen und noch feuchten Misteln, die im Entsafter entsaftet werden. (Gegen Unfruchtbarkeit nehme man davon je fünfundzwanzig Tropfen in etwas Wasser nüchtern eine halbe Stunde vor dem Frühstück und abends vor dem Schlafengehen.)






   ἰξία (ἢ Viscum). Γένος φυτῶν ἐκ τῶν λωρανθοειδῶν, περιλαμβάνον εἴκοσι εἴδη τῶν χωρῶν τοῦ παλαιοῦ κόσμου, ὧν ἕν, τὸ καὶ κυριώτερον , φύεται καὶ ἐν Ἑλλάδι, καλούμενον κν.ἰξός, μελάς, μελιὰς καὶ μηλιός, ἠμιπαρασιτικῶς ζῶν ἐπὶ δένδρων.||( Ixia). Γένος φυτῶν ἐκ τῶν ἰριδοειδῶν, περιλαμβάνον εἰκοσιπέντε εἴδη βολβόρριζα, κοσμητικά.
   Ἔγκυκλ.- Ἡ ἰξία (Viscum) εἶνε θαμνώδης, ἀπαντᾶ δὲ εἰς τὰ πλεῖστα μέρη τῆς Εὐρώπης· ἰξία ἡ λευκή, ἡ φυομένη καὶ ἐν Ἑλλάδι, ζῆ ἐπὶ τῆς μηλέας, τῆς δρυός, τῆς ἐλάτης  κ.λ. τρεφομένη ἐν μέρει  ἐξ αὐτῶν διὰ μυζητήρων. Παρουσιάζει διχοτόμον διακλάδωσιν, ἕκαστος δὲ κλάδος φέρει δύο πράσινα δερματώδη φύλλα. Τὰ ἄνθη εἶνε μονογενῆ, δίοικα, κατὰ τριάδας. Οἱ στήμονες συμφύονται μετὰ τῶν πετάλων, ἔχουσι δὲ πολυαρίθμους γυρεογόνους ἀσκούς. Τὰ ἄνθη ἐκκρίνουσι νέκταρ καὶ προσελκύουσι δι’ αὐτοῦ τὰς μυίας.


Ὁ ἰξὸς χρησιμεύει καὶ πρὸς ἐπίχρισιν λεπτῶν πασσαλίσκων διὰ τὴν σύλληψιν πτηνῶν (βλ. ἰξόβεργα καὶ ἰξός), ἐπίσης διὰ τὴν ἐπίχρισιν τῶν κορμῶν τῶν ὀπωροφόρων δέντρων πρὸς παρακώλυσιν τῆς ἐπ΄ αὐτῶν ἀνόδου ἐντόμων. Τοιαύτη οὐσία λαμβάνεται καὶ ἐξ ἄλλων φυτῶν, ὡς λωράνθου τοῦ εὐρωπαϊκοῦ καὶ κορδίας τῆς μύξης, ἐπίσης φυομένων ἐν Ἑλλάδι.Ἰξία  ἡ λευκὴ ἦτο τὸ ἱερόν των Κελτῶν φυτόν. Ἡ ἀποκοπὴ τοῦ ἰξοῦ ἐγίνετο κατ΄ ἔτος ὑπὸ τῶν δρυϊδῶν.

                                                                                                                                                                          ΕΓΚΥΚΛΟΠΑΙΔΕΙΑ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΟΥΔΑΚΗ  ΕΓΚΥΚΛΟΠΑΙΔΙΚΑΙ ΕΚΔΟΣΕΙΣ Ν. ΝΙΚΑΣ & ΣΙΑ Ε.Ε


Mistletoe

"The English and American custom of hanging up sprigs of mistletoe at Christmas time and of feeling free to kiss anyone standing under them seems to go back to the Celtic enthusiasm for the plant". (Biedermann, p. 224).
"As neither tree nor shrub, it symbolizes that which is neither one nor the other, which, by extension, is the realm of freedom from limitation, so that anyone under the mistletoe is free from restrictions, but also free from protection, and re-enters the world of chaos..." (Cooper, under Mistletoe).
"Two hundred years before Christ's birth, the Druids celebrated the start of winter by gathering mistletoe and burning it as a sacrifice to their gods". (Panati's p. 68).
"Gathering mistletoe was an occasion for great ceremony and only sprigs that grew on sacred oak trees were collected - by the highest ranking priest, and with a gold knife ...". (Panati's p. 69).
"During the Roman feasts of Natalis Solis Invicti and Saturnalia, patricians and plebeians bound sprigs into boughs and festively draped the garlands throughout the house". (Panati's, p. 69).
"...according to legend, it sprang up where lightning had struck a tree (especially an oak). Mistletoe growing on oak trees was especially prized ...". (Bruce-Mitford, p. 224).
"In the Breton dialect of Vannes, among the many words used instead of mistletoe, there is the curious name of 'deur derhue'. "oak-water"". (Bruce-Mitford, p. 661).
Why was the oak held as sacred?
"In many traditions the oak was a sacred tree to which the privileges of the supreme sky-god were attributed, doubtless because it attracts lightning and is symbolic of Kingship...In all ages and among all peoples the oak has been synonymous with strength...at Sichem and at Hebron Abraham received the divine revelation in an oak grove...Odysseus on his return went twice to Dedona to 'hear the will of Zeus from the high-crested oak of the god'...the druids' priestly quality entitled them to both wisdom and strength and the oak symbolizes both..." (Chevalier & Gheerbrant, pp. 709, 710).
"Mistletoe is the Golden Bough of the Druids and Aeneas and represents the sacred feminine principle with the oak as the male." (Cooper, under Mistletoe).
"Oak...Christian: a symbol of Christ...Druidic: the sacred tree...Graeco-Roman: Sacred to Zeus/Jupiter...emblem of Cybele and of Silvanus and in Greece of Philemon...Hebrew: The Tree of the Covenant...Scandinavian and Teutonic: Thor's Tree of Life; also sacred to Donar. Oak groves were places of worship in Germanic rites." (Cooper, under Oak).
"...for the Druids, it was the oak which was also the sacred attribute of the Germanic god of thunder and the (Greek) King of the gods, Zeus". (Biedermann, p. 351).
"That the mistletoe bough in the Druidic superstition...was derived from Babylon, was a representation of the Messiah, 'The man the branch'. The mistletoe was regarded as a divine branch - a branch that came from heaven, and grew upon a tree that sprung out of the earth". (Hislop, p. 99)
Bibliography: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/deities/chris25.htm





The word 'mistletoe' (Old English mistiltan) is of uncertain etymology; it may be related to German Mist, for dung and Tang for branch, since mistletoe can be spread in the feces of birds moving from tree to tree. However, Old English mistel was also used for basil.
European mistletoe, Viscum album, figured prominently in Greek mythology, and is believed to be The Golden Bough of Aeneas, ancestor of the Romans.
In the 13th century Prose Edda, due to the scheming of Loki, the god Baldr is killed by his brother, the blind god Höðr, by way of a mistletoe projectile, despite the attempts of Baldr's mother, the goddess Frigg, to have all living things and inanimate objects swear an oath not to hurt Baldr after Baldr had troubling dreams of his death. Frigg was unable to get an oath from mistletoe, because "it seemed too young" to demand an oath from In the Gesta Danorum version of the story, Baldr and Höðr are rival suitors, and Höðr kills Baldr with a sword named Mistilteinn (Old Norse "mistletoe"). In addition, a sword by the same name appears in various other Norse legends.
In cultures across pre-Christian Europe, mistletoe was seen as a representation of divine male essence (and thus romance, fertility and vitality), possibly due to a resemblance between the berries and semen.
According to Pliny the Elder, the Celts considered it a remedy for barrenness in animals and an antidote to poison.
Mistletoe is commonly used as a Christmas decoration, though such use was rarely alluded to until the 18th century. Viscum album is used in Europe whereasPhoradendron serotinum is used in North America. According to custom, the mistletoe must not touch the ground between its cutting and its removal as the last of Christmas greens at Candlemas; it may remain hanging through the year, often to preserve the house from lightning or fire, until it was replaced the following Christmas Eve.The tradition has spread throughout the English-speaking world but is largely unknown in the rest of Europe.

According to ancient Christmas custom, a man and a woman who meet under a hanging of mistletoe were obliged to kiss. The custom may be of Scandinavianorigin It was described in 1820 by American author Washington Irving in his "The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon

Mistletoe
Sitting under the mistletoe
(Pale-green, fairy mistletoe),
One last candle burning low,
All the sleepy dancers gone,
Just one candle burning on,
Shadows lurking everywhere:
Some one came, and kissed me there.

Tired I was; my head would go
Nodding under the mistletoe
(Pale-green, fairy mistletoe),
No footsteps came, no voice, but only,
Just as I sat there, sleepy, lonely,
Stooped in the still and shadowy air
Lips unseen - and kissed me there. 
                                      Walter de la Mare


Mistletoe in folk legend and medicine
The traditional mistletoe of Europe and Asia, Viscum album , features prominently in ancient legend and in mythology. For example, the Golden Bough was probably mistletoe. The Golden Bough was carried by Aeneas, who had earlier escaped from Troy when it was destroyed by the Greeks. He had many adventures, and was persecuted by some gods and protected by others. Aeneas descended into Hades to consult his dead father, Anchises, but only after he had plucked the Golden Bough, at Sybil’s direction, to carry with him on his perilous journey.
The Golden Bough is also identified with the sacred branches which grew in the sanctuary of Diana at Nemi, the sanctuary being a grove of oak trees. To become High Priest of the sanctuary, one had first to succeed in plucking the sacred bough, and then in killing the reigning priest.
Superstitions about mistletoe are widespread in many cultures in different parts of the world, and therefore involve numerous mistletoe species other than V. album. Even in this wider context mistletoe is more often a good omen than a bad one. Uses for mistletoe, which often involved special recipes and complicated rituals, include gaining protection from fires, keeping witches away, as a divining rod to find hidden treasure, keeping horses from straying, promoting fertility in domestic herds and crops, giving strength to wrestlers, success to hunters, avoiding military service, protecting from wounds in battle, forcing evil spirits from hiding and making them tell the truth, preventing nightmares, providing refuge for woodland spirits in winter, and keeping witches from meat in the smokehouse.
Mistletoe was used medicinally either by placing it on the affected part or by drinking a decoction of the plant. At various times in various parts of the world it has been used to treat epilepsy, the bites of mad dogs and wild animals, strained muscles, toothache, sores, itch, weakness of vision, impetigo, dandruff, regeneration of lost fingernails, common cold, ulcers, poisoning, promotion of muscular relaxation before childbirth, to hasten menstruation, treat warts, snakebite, fever, syphilis, beri-beri, ringworm, headaches, gout and worms. In England, if a child had intestinal worms, he/she was given bark of mistletoe taken from an oak tree, powdered in warm milk, and the worms would supposedly die exactly nine hours later.
In the matter of human fertility, early peasants in England and continental Europe and also the Ainu people of Japan regarded mistletoe as a symbol of fertility. Mistletoe was eaten by barren women. It was carried about by women of ancient Rome for the same reason. Austrian couples were helped to parenthood by a piece of mistletoe hidden secretly in the bedroom. A German recipe to induce pregnancy was as follows: three mistletoe twigs should be boiled for three minutes in 1.5 litres of water, accompanied by the invocation of the three holy names, and both spouses should drink the concoction eight days before the onset of the wife’s menstrual period.
In Australia the indigenous people certainly recognized mistletoes and had specific names for them. It seems, however, that mistletoes have little place in cultural beliefs. It has been reported that some Torres Strait Islanders believe that a pregnant woman who touches mistletoe will have twins.
As one might expect, there was much ceremony attached to collecting mistletoe. In England and elsewhere in Europe mistletoe was only esteemed when found growing on oak trees. In Japan the Ainu people favoured only the mistletoe which grew on the sacred willow tree. Several cultural groups, including the Romans and some present-day people, believed that mistletoe was only effective if it was not allowed to touch the ground. The Swiss shot the mistletoe down from oak trees with bow and arrow; the moon had to be on the wane, the sun in the sign of Sagittarius, and the mistletoe twigs had to be caught in the left hand. In other cases, however, mistletoe must not be touched by hand while being collected. In Sweden mistletoe had to grow on oak, and had to be knocked down with stones. The Druids gathered mistletoe on the sixth day of the moon at the end of the year, with very solemn rites. Two white bulls were led by a priest, also clothed in white, to an oak tree bearing mistletoe. The priest silently climbed the tree and carefully cut the mistletoe with a golden sickle. The pieces were caught in a white mantle. The bulls were slain as sacrifices, and prayers were offered for the wellbeing of all involved. The pieces of mistletoe were then distributed and worn as rings and bracelets.
The reason for the importance of mistletoe in legend and medicine probably relates to the growth habit of the plant. Being a parasite, and therefore appearing as a distinct clump of foliage on a tree, it would have attracted the attention of primitive people. Because mistletoe is evergreen, it would have been even more conspicuous when observed in winter on a deciduous host tree. Furthermore it would have had special significance when the host tree itself was sacred.
It was widely believed, then, that the evergreen mistletoe kept the deciduous sacred host tree alive during winter while it was leafless. The mistletoe was regarded as the heart or the life of the god of the sacred tree. Balder was in fact a personification of the oak tree, and his life was guarded in the mistletoe which grew on the oak. The Druids in Gaul esteemed nothing more sacred than the oak and the mistletoe which grew on it, and the Ainu people of Japan had similar beliefs with regard to their sacred willow.
It is noteworthy that the medicinal properties of mistletoe may not be due entirely to superstitious beliefs. In the twentieth century mistletoe became an accepted pharmaceutical plant. Extracts from V. album have been reported to have the properties of reducing blood pressure, increasing urine production, toning cardiac muscle, checking haemorrhages, and acting as an antispasmodic (cf. its ancient use as a treatment for epilepsy).             http://www.anbg.gov.au/mistletoe/folk-legend.html




Les Grecs associaient le gui à Hermès, grand messager de l'Olympe.
Du temps des Gaulois, les druides allaient en forêt pour couper le gui sacré, le sixième jour de l'année celtique. Ils coupaient le gui en s'exclamant : « O Ghel an Heu » ce qui signifie littéralement « Que le blé germe ». Cet expression sera modernisée au Moyen Âge dans « Au gui l'an neuf ».  En Bretagne, au xixe siècle encore, les enfants allaient frapper aux portes des maisons bourgeoises en criant le « blé germe » et ils recevaient des étrennes.Les druides considéraient cette plante comme sacrée en raison des vertus médicinales, ou même miraculeuses, qu'ils lui attribuaient. Le gui était un talisman qui chassait les mauvais esprits, purifiait les âmes, guérissait les corps, neutralisait les poisons, assurait la fécondité des troupeaux, permettait même de voir les fantômes et de les faire parler. C'était le gui cueilli sur le chêne – chose rare – qui était recherché. Le chêne était l'arbre du soleil qui symbolisait la force et la puissance. Le Gui était l'arbuste de la lune.
Selon une légende scandinave, le Dieu solaire, Balder le fils du Dieu Odin, avait été tué par une flèche fabriquée avec une tige de gui par le démon Loki. La mère de Balder, Frigga, implora les autres Dieux pour son retour à la vie, et celui-ci devint le symbole de l'amour et du pardon. Quant au Gui il fut condamné à quitter la terre ferme, à monter dans les arbres pour ne plus jamais en redescendre.
Traditions
En Europe du Nord (y compris en France), il est d'usage de s'embrasser sous une branche de gui, symbole de prospérité et de longue vie au moment des fêtes de Noël et du jour de l'an (à minuit précisément). La saison voulant que le gui abonde, on en cueillit dès le Moyen Âge pour l'offrir avec ce souhait : « Au gui l'an neuf », formule qui fut remplacée plus tard par « Bon an, mal an, Dieu soit céans » (soit dans la maison). Au XIXe siècle on disait « Bonne et sainte année, le paradis à la fin de vos jours », expression modernisée au xxe siècle en « Bonne et heureuse année ».
En Amérique du Nord, on décore à la période de Noël avec des feuilles de Phoradendron flavescens. La tradition veut que deux personnes qui se retrouvent dessous doivent s'embrasser.
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gui_(plante) 






The myth of the Norse god Balder

“Once upon a time Balder dreamed heavy dreams which seemed to forbode his death. Thereupon the gods held a council and resolved to make Balder secure against every danger. So the goddess Frigg took an oath from fire and water, iron and all metals, stones and earth, from trees, sicknesses and poisons, and from all four-footed beasts, birds and creeping things, that they would not hurt Balder. When this was done Balder was deemed invulnerable; so the gods amused themselves by setting him in their midst, while some shot at him, others hewed at him, and others threw stones at him. But whatever they did, nothing could hurt him; and at this they were all glad.”
“Only Loki, the mischief maker, was displeased, and he went in the guise of an old women to Frigg, who told him that the weapons of the gods could not hurt Balder, since she had made them all swear not to hurt him. Then Loki asked, ‘have all things sworn to spare Balder?’ She answered, ‘East of Valhalla grows a plant called mistletoe; it seemed to me too young to swear’. So Loki went and pulled the mistletoe and took it to the assembly of the gods. There he found the blind god Hother standing at the outside of the circle. Loki asked him, ‘Why do you not shoot at Balder?’ Hother answered, ‘Because I do not see where he stands; besides I have no weapon.’ Then said Loki, ‘Do like the rest and show Balder honour, as they all do. I will show you where he stands, and do you shoot at him with this twig.’ Hother took the mistletoe and threw it at Balder, as Loki directed him. The mistletoe struck Balder and pierced him through and through, and he fell down dead. For a while the gods stood speechless, then they lifted up their voices and wept bitterly.”
The story goes on to describe the burning of Balder’s body in a funeral pyre on his ship. In another version, the goddess Frigg persuaded the other gods to restore Balder to life. She repayed their obliging wizardry with kisses. The gods also made the mistletoe promise that it would never again do an uncharitable deed but would forever be consecrated to acts of happiness and usefulness. Frigg was given the authority of making the mistletoe live up to this pledge. So perhaps the hanging of mistletoe and the kissing relate to the goodness the plant bestows, and the habits of Frigg, the goddess of love and beauty.
Source: The story of Balder is set out in Frazer’s monumental work The Golden Bough.




Ιξός εννοιολογικά σημαίνει κόλλα, κολλητική ύλη, ιξεύω: πιάνω πουλιά με τη ξόβεργα και ιξευτής: ο ορνιθήρας. Η επάλειψη μιας βέργας με το πυκνόρευστο χυμό της ανθοφορούσας ειδικά γαλατσίδας μας δίνει μια άριστη ξόβεργα. Στη βοτανική ο ιξός του είδους Viscum album (Ιξός ο λευκός, Βίσκο το λευκό ) παρασιτεί κυρίως στα έλατα. Η γαλατσίδα που παράγει γαλακτώδη πυκνόρευστο κολλώδη χυμό ανήκει στο γένοςEuphorbia της οικογενείας των ευφορβιδών. Το άγριο ραδίκι ή (αγριοράδικο, πικροράδικο, κιχώρι, σταμνάγκαθο, άλιφος, ραδίκι της θάλασσας, κοινό σε παραθαλάσιες περιοχές κ.α.) του γένους Cichorium σε πολλές περιοχές της Ελλάδος,όπως στη Δυτική Μακεδονία, όταν παύει να είναι νεαρό φυτό ως εδώδιμο λαχανικό το αποκαλούν γαλατσίδα.  http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%99%CE%BE%CF%8C%CF%82




The word "viscosity" is derived from the Latin "viscum alba", meaning white mistletoe. A viscous glue called birdlime was made from mistletoe berries and was used for lime-twigs to catch birds. viscous late 14c., from Anglo-Fr. viscous, from L.L. viscosus "sticky," from L. viscum "anything sticky, birdlime made from mistletoe, mistletoe," probably from PIE base *weis- "to melt away, flow" (used of foul or malodorous fluids); see virus.

Ὁ Λουκιανὸς τὴν φτώχεια τὴν παριστάνει ὡς ἰξώδη καὶ εὐκολόπιαστη:
 «  Ἡ πενία δ' ἔμπαλιν ἰξώδης τὲ καὶ εὐλαβὴς(εὐκολόπιαστη) καὶ μυρία τα ἄγκιστρα ἐκπυφυκότα ἐξ ἅπαντος  τοῦ  σώματος ἔχουσα, ὡς πλησιάσαντας εὐθὺς  ἔχεσθαι καὶ μὴ ἔχειν ραδίως ἀπολυθῆναι»  





BIRD  LIME  Stuck in the Past: The Sick History of Trapping Birds with Glue http://obscurearchives.stupidquestion.net/birdlime.html