Παρασκευή, 30 Νοεμβρίου 2012

ΑΧΕΛΩΟΣ ,Achelous ,Aspropótamos, River - God ACHELOUS

Ἀχελῶος : ποταμὸς  Ἀκαρνανίας  καὶ πᾶν  ὕδωρ  οὕτως  λέγεται .
                                                                                                              ΗΣΥΧΙΟΣ  ΛΕΞΙΚΟΝ 

ACHELOUS (mod. Aspropotamo, "white river"), the largest river in Greece . It was formerly called Thoas, from its impetuosity; and its upper portion was called by some Inachus, the name Achelous being restricted to the shorter eastern branch. Achelous is coupled with Ocean by Homer (Il. xxi. 193) as chief of rivers, and the name is given to several other rivers in Greece. The name appears in cult and in mythology as that of the typical river-god; a familiar legendis that of his contest with Heracles for Deianira.  1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Achelous

Bk IX:1-88 Acheloüs wrestles with Hercule
Theseus, the hero, reputed son of Neptune, asked Acheloüs why he had sighed, and the reason for his damaged forehead: to which the Calydonian river-god, his uncut hair wreathed with reeds, replied:
       ‘You ask something painful of me. Who wants to recall the battles he has lost? But, I will tell it as it happened: since the shame of being beaten is no less than the honour of having fought. It is a great consolation to me that the victor was so famous.
 If her name has ever come to your notice, Deianira was once the most beautiful girl, and the jealous hope of many suitors. When, with them, I entered Oeneus’s house, her father, and the man I sought as my father-in-law, I said: “Accept me as your son-in-law, son of Parthaon.” Hercules, scion of Alceus, said the same. The others gave way before the two of us. Hercules declared that he could offer Jove as his bride’s father-in-law, spoke of his famous labours, and of how he had survived what his stepmother, Juno, had prescribed for him. On my side I said: “It would be shameful for a god to concede to a mortal” – He was not yet a god – “In me you see the lord of the waters, that flow in winding rivers, through your kingdom. As your son-in-law I would not be a stranger sent from a foreign shore, but a native, and wedded to your own interests. Only don’t let it harm my case that Queen Juno does not hate me, and all the punishment of the labours, she demanded, passed me by!”
   “Now, listen, Hercules, you, son of Alcmena: Jupiter, whose child you boast of being, is either wrongly called your father, or is truly a wrongdoer. You seek your father in a mother’s adultery. Choose whether you prefer this fiction of Jove as a father, or to be born the son of shame.” As I spoke, he gazed at me fiercely, all the while, and unable to act like a man and control his blazing anger, he merely replied in these words: “My right hand is more powerful than my tongue. As long as I beat you at wrestling, you can win the talking”, and he came at me ferociously. I was ashamed to retreat, after my words: I took off my green robes; put up my arms; held my hands, fingers curved, in front of my chest in fighting stance; and readied my limbs for the match. He caught up dust in the hollow of his hands and threw it over me, and, in turn, was, himself, gilded by the yellow sand. Now he caught at my neck, or you might think he caught me, now at my legs, now at my loins: and attacked me from every side. My weight protected me, and his attempts were useless. I was like a massive pile that the roaring flood assaults with all its might: it remains, secure in its own bulk.
 We pulled away for a moment, returned to the conflict, and stood firm, determined not to concede. Foot was set against foot, and I pushed at him, with my chest full forward, fingers locked with fingers, and head to head. I have seen two strong bulls come together like that, when they try for the sleekest heifer in the pasture as their prize in the contest. The herd watches in fear, not sure to which one victory will grant overriding supremacy. Three times without success Hercules tried to push my gleaming chest away from him. At the fourth attempt, he broke my grip, loosed himself from my constricting arms, and with a blow of his hand – Certainly, I myself confess it is the truth – he turned me about, and clung, with all his weight, to my back.
  If you can believe it - I am not seeking to gain false credit by saying it – I seemed to have a mountain pressing on top of me. With difficulty I thrust my arms, pouring with sweat from the great effort it took, under him, and, with difficulty, freed his firm hold on my body. He pressed me hard, as I gasped for breath, prevented me from gathering my strength, and gripped my neck. Then, at last, my knee touched the ground, and my mouth tasted sand. Inferior to him in strength, I turned to my magic arts, and slipped from his grasp in the shape of a long snake. But when I had wound my body in sinuous coils, and, hissing fiercely, darted my forked tongue at him, Tiryns’s hero laughed, and mocking my magic arts, said: “My task in the cradle was to defeat snakes, and, though you are greater than other reptiles, Acheloüs, how big a slice of the Lernean Hydra would your one serpent be? It was made fecund by its wounds, and not one of its hundred heads was safely cut off without its neck generating two more. I overcame it, and having overcome it, disembowelled that monster, with branching snake-heads, that grew from their own destruction, thriving on evil. What do you think will happen to you, who are only a false snake, using unfamiliar weapons, whom a shifting form hides?”
 He spoke and knotted his fingers round my throat. I was suffocating, as if my throat was gripped by a vice, and struggled to tear his thumbs away from my windpipe. Overpowered in this form, only my third, fierce, bull-shape remained. So I fought on, my limbs those of a bull. From the left he threw his arms round my bulging neck; and followed me as I charged off; dragging at me, my horns piercing the hard ground as he pulled me down; and toppling me into the deep sand. As if that was not enough, holding the tough horn in his cruel hand, he broke it and tore it away from my mutilated brow. The Naiades took it, filling it with fruit and scented flowers, and made it sacred: the Goddess of Abundance is rich now because of my horn of plenty.” Ovid's Metamorphoses, tr. Anthony S. Kline

Πλημμύρα ο Ασπροπόταμος, και γω, στην τρομερή του ορμή
καταμεσίς στημένος,
στύλο τα πόδια μου έβανα κι ολόρτο απάνωθε κορμί,
σα θεός εναντιωμένος.
Και ξαφνικά ο αγώνας μου μια δίψα ανέγνωρη έγινε,
κι ως άνοιξα τα χείλα
λίγο να σκύψω και να πιω, άσωτο νάμα ο ποταμός
μέσ΄στην καρδιά μου εκύλα.

Κι όσο μ΄αλάφρωνε η καρδιά, τόσο γλυκότερο ένιωθα
στα μέλη τον αγώνα,
κι έπινα ως αύρα της αυγής το ρέμα που μου επάταγε
μπροστήτερα το γόνα .

Τέλος, ως σβήνει, άμα γυρνά το κύμα αντίστροφα, ο αφρός
στον απλωμένο άμμο,
έμεινε η κοίτη ολόστεγνη και λεύτερα τα πόδια μου
σαν τα φτερά, να δράμω!

Έτσι, ένιωσα, ως αλάφρωσα, μιαν άσωτη παλικαριά
να μου ξυπνάει στα στήθη,
κι όλο της πλάσης το δροσιό και των βουνών η λεβεντιά
στα σωτικά μου εχύθη.

Ω , πόσο μου ήταν τ΄όνειρον από τον άθλο αδρότερο
του ημίθεου, που στο χέρι
με ταύρου ανάρπασε μορφή τον ποταμό απ΄τα κέρατα,
κρατώντας του καρτέρι,
και βάνοντας το γόνα του στο διπλωτό του τράχηλο,
του σύντριψ΄έτσι το ένα-
κι αυτός εχύθηκε, τρελός του πόνου, μέσ΄στα πέλαγα,
μουγγρίζοντας ολοένα...

Άγγελος Σικελιανός, "Αντίδωρο"

Musée du Louvre,  Heracles fighting the river-god Achelous for Deianeira. Side A from an Attic red-figure column-krater, ca. 450 BC. From Agrigento

God of the River Acheloos in west central Greece, who comes to typify all river gods. He is usually shown as a bull with a man's horned head or forepart. Herakles wrestles with him to win his bride Deianeira. Some thought his broken horn became the Cornucopia. 
Above: Detail from Athenian red-figure clay vase, about 475-425 BC. Paris Musée du Louvre G365 © Musée du Louvre

http://www.snowclub.gr/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t12137.html  http://www.mlahanas.de/Greece/Regions/Rivers.html

The Achelous (Greek: Αχελώος), also Acheloos, is a river in western Greece. It formed the boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia of antiquity. It empties into the Ionian Sea. In ancient times its spirit was venerated as the river god Achelous.
Herodotus, taking notice of the shoreline-transforming power of the Acheloos River, even compared it to the Nile in this respect:
'There are other rivers as well which, though not as large as the Nile, have had substantial results. In particular (although I could name others), there is the Achelous, which flows through Acarnania into the sea and has already turned half the Echinades islands into mainland.' (2.10, trans. Waterfield)
The previous name was Thoas. It is rarely known as Thestios and Axenoshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achelous_River


Η ονομασία Αχελώος πιθανότατα να προέρχεται από την ρίζα «αχ» που σημαίνει νερό και το συγκριτικό επίθετο «λώων» που σημαίνει καλύτερος. Η λαϊκότερη ονομασία του ποταμού είναι Ασπροπόταμος ή Άσπρος. Υπάρχουν αρκετές εκδοχές για την προέλευση της ονομασίας αυτής, οι πλέον διαδεδομένες τη συνδέουν με την αφρισμένη εικόνα του ποταμού κατά τους ανοιξιάτικους μήνες όταν λυώνουν τα χιόνια ή με το λευκό χρώμα των χαλικιών στις όχθες του και την άσπρη λάσπη που κατεβάζει το ρεύμα του.


Κατά την μυθολογία ο Αχελώος έδωσε στον Ηρακλή το κέρας της Αμάλθειας. Στην πραγματικότητα όμως αυτό ήρθε μετά από 2.500 χρόνια, από τους σύγχρονους Έλληνες, με τη κατασκευή των μεγάλων υδροηλεκτρικών έργων (φραγμάτων) στη περιοχή απ΄ όπου και παράγεται "αφειδώς" ηλεκτρική ενέργεια. Τα δε έργα αυτά αποτελούν σήμερα και τη σπονδυλική στήλη του ηλεκτρικού εξοπλισμού της Χώρας.http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91%CF%87%CE%B5%CE%BB%CF%8E%CE%BF%CF%82


http://www.pemptousia.gr/accessibility-photo-gallery/Εικόνες από τον Αχελώο και το σταματημένο έργο της εκτροπής (Φωτογραφίες: Νίκος Λουπάκης)
http://www.pemptousia.gr/accessibility-photo-gallery/ ΝΙΚΟΣ  ΛΟΥΠΑΚΗΣ 
http://www.pemptousia.gr/accessibility-photo-gallery/ ΝΙΚΟΣ  ΛΟΥΠΑΚΗΣ 
http://www.pemptousia.gr/accessibility-photo-gallery/ ΝΙΚΟΣ  ΛΟΥΠΑΚΗΣ 


Achéloos (fleuve)

L’Achéloos (en grec ancien Ἀχελῷος / Akhelōos, moderne Αχελώος / Achelóos) ou Achéloüs (latin : Ăchĕlōus, -i) ou Aspropotamos (littéralement le « Fleuve blanc »), est un fleuve du nord-ouest de la Grèce, long de 217 km. Il formait la frontière entre l'Acarnanie et l’Étolie dans l’Antiquité. Son esprit était révéré par les Grecs comme le dieu fleuve Achéloos.
Le fleuve prend sa source dans le massif du Pinde près du mont Lakmos, dans la préfecture de Trikala, à une altitude approximative de 2 295 m. C'est l'un des fleuves les plus longs de Grèce. Il se confond avec la frontière administrative entre les nomes (préfecture) d'Arta dans l'Épire et ceux de Trikala et de Karditsa en Thessalie. Il se jette dans la mer Ionienne et en partie dans le golfe de Patras via la lagune de Missolongi, à l'ouest de la ville du même nom.
Depuis 1960, il est utilisé pour la production hydroélectrique. Un débat plutôt vif entre les industriels, les écologistes et les habitants a fait rage en 2007 au sujet d'un nouveau barrage de 135 m de haut financé par l'Union européenne sur le cours supérieur du fleuve. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ach%C3%A9loos_(fleuve)